Currently viewing the tag: "UE"

Ctia_logo_2010 Was expecting this for a while and it finally got done. Yea! If you have followed, I have written about the universal SKU device a lot, from a roaming perspective, UIM perspective and device engineering perspective. See here for some history. There was only the action piece to get through, so this post has lots of PDF documents to get through but the CTIA recommended Consumer Code for Wireless Service is the topic, so I’ll just summarize the 6 new points to add to the Consumer Code below. Below that I will put the FCC and CTIA documents and just above that my take on it…

breaking-newsNew stuff:

1. Disclosure.

Each carrier will post on its website its clear, concise, and readily accessible policy on postpaid and prepaid mobile wireless device unlocking.

2. Postpaid Unlocking Policy.

Carriers, upon request, will unlock mobile wireless devices or provide the necessary information to unlock their devicesfor their customers and former customers in good standing and individual owners of eligible devices after the fulfillment of the applicable postpaid service contract, device financing plan or payment of an applicable early termination fee.

3. Prepaid Unlocking Policy.

Carriers, upon request, will unlock prepaid mobile wireless devices no later than one year after initial activation, consistent with reasonable time, payment or usage requirements.

4. Notice.

Carriers that lock devices will clearly notify customers that their devices are eligible for unlocking at the time when their devices are eligible for unlocking or automatically unlock devices remotely when devices are eligible for unlocking, without additional fee.

5. Response Time.

Within two business days after receiving a request, carriers will unlock eligible mobile wireless devices or initiate a request to the OEM to unlock the eligible device, or provide an explanation of why the device does not qualify for unlocking, or why the carrier reasonably needs additional time to process the request.

6. Deployed Personnel Unlocking Policy.

Carriers will unlock mobile wireless devices for deployed military personnel who are customers in good standing upon provision of deployment

In my view this is a very good step forward in general. It took too long and it is being spun into a huge ‘favor’ to us for my taste but it’s getting done. This is completely voluntary so companies can not comply or stop without warning without any consequences. In my opinion, the end destination is for us to all have the ability to have any device go anywhere on any network, allowing us to vote with our $, whom we think is doing the best job for us at any time. Equipment OEMs need to keep pushing for universal RF front ends to make this a reality. Remaining challenges are: Embedded UIM vs removable and roaming agreements for LTE. This also will make Public Safety LTE trials easier too…. ha….Overall, a thumbs up!.


Been following this but wasn’t sure it was on anyone’s else’s RADAR. Today, it popped up in Technology Review so I thought it was good to mention they have an article about it.

What is it? It’s is Network Coding for TCP.

What does it do? It overcomes the congestion and lossy packet problems that cause network throughput drops. Whenever a TCP packet comes out of order or doesn’t arrive, there are a lot of NAKs/ACKs etc.. that have to happen to restart the flow and there is a lot of latency to make that happen. Using some simple algebra that helps recover from errors (not error correction in the typical sense) and new rules, the flow of packets can be greatly accelerated under lossy conditions such as everyday in wireless networks. Papers explaining simulation runs are showing typically between 20% and 40% improvement under lossy conditions. (40% over 0Mbps make it feel huge.)

A startup by Caltech and MIT named CodeOn has been set up to license this groovy game changing technology.

Hope to see this used ubiquitously on the mobile internet! (within the LTE infrastructure and UE)


Network Coding-Aware Queue Management for TCP Flows over Coded Wireless Networks

Modeling Network Coded TCP Throughput: A Simple Model and Its Validation

Download (PDF, 395KB)

Multiple Network Coded TCP Sessions in Disruptive Wireless Scenarios

Download (PDF, 312KB)



Update: Forgot that Artiza Networks has a nice and clean version. Mine looks like a messy room in comparison. :) See bottom.

Just sharing this, it’s something I did before and forgot where I used it. I think I summarized some details, such as the millions of IMS pieces but broke out important functions such as HSGW vs PDSN and IWS etc for clarity. Enjoy…

The Network Mona Lisa


This version was created by Artiza Networks…

 So last year had a story about saving 50% power consumption just by enhancing content strategies. I’ve been keeping my eyes on that one, therefore when I saw these, my triggers went off. I have about 4 technologies that are not earth shattering but each add up to dramatically slice power consumption for mobile devices. Here goes..

 BTW, this latest batch of technology is fundamental and is useful for all 4G LTE devices being used in most any way.

Firstly. there is a company called Quantance that has introduced a seriously kick butt power amplifier device for UEs. Their Q845 is a single chip 0.18μm component that enables Envelope Tracking (ET) for power amplifiers (PA) therefore, when combined with a relatively efficient PA component the effective power efficiency can approach 50% vs typical 35% seen in today’s designs. Here is their nifty graphic that shows the benefits: 

Quantance calls their ET technology qBoost. This is a significant improvement for LTE mobile radios. Don’t forget that this ET approach improves linearity of the PA. This will be realized as greater dBs TX power and improved Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) for greater throughputs in the uplink at the reduced power.













Second, let’s consider the improvement researchers Xinyu Zhang and Kang G. Shin of the University of Michigan outlined…That was a strategy called E-MiLi (Energy-Minimizing idle Listening.)  

A new “subconscious mode” for smartphones and other WiFi-enabled mobile devices could extend battery life by as much as 54 percent for users on the busiest networks. 

 This was targeted for WiFi and saves around 44% of total radio power. Their paper is here

Lastly there is Dockon. Dockon explains their technology best as:

DockOn’s CPL antenna technology is based on the concept of increasing efficiency and bandwidth by exciting magnetic and electric radiators together from a single feed location. This concept, referred to as “compound antenna theory”, has been perfected by DockOn for use in a wide variety of commercial applications and implemented on a variety of substrates including rigid/flex PCB, stamped metal and Laser Direct Structuring (LDS).

Their white paper can be found here.

So overall this increased antenna efficiency will increase the amount of RF power coming into and out of the antenna, therefore improving performance and battery life (less TX adjusting required since RX is better.)

 Beyond the constant improvements in processors that we are hearing about, both ARM designs and graphics processors, there is a new memory standard , double data rate type four synchronous dynamic random-access memory (DDR4). Note, the standards organization, JEDEC defines this standard. 

This memory is faster for greater performance and offers a theoretical savings of 20% overall. Samsung is now sampling these modules for servers etc and so the mobile devices seem to be more like 2013ish, but nonetheless an important technology to keep our eyes on. 

There is the simple list of 4 complementary technologies that can offer power savings in devices beyond the traditional process shrinks that are now expected in the processor domain. 

Good day..

Links: DockonJEDECQuantanceUniversity of Michigan, Wikipedia




With publication forecasted for mid-2012, JEDEC DDR4 will represent a significant advancement in performance with reduced power usage as compared to previous generation technologies. When published, the new standard will be available for free download at
DDR4 is being developed with a range of innovative features designed to enable high speed operation and broad applicability in a variety of applications including servers, laptops, desktop PCs and consumer products. Its speed, voltage and architecture are all being defined with the goal of simplifying migration and facilitating adoption of the standard.
A DDR4 voltage roadmap has been proposed that will facilitate customer migration by holding VDDQ constant at 1.2V and allowing for a future reduction in the VDD supply voltage. Understanding that enhancements in technology will occur over time, DDR4 will help protect against technology obsolescence by keeping the I/O voltage stable.
The per-pin data rates, over time, will be 1.6 giga transfers per second to an initial maximum objective of 3.2 giga transfers per second. With DDR3 exceeding its expected peak of 1.6 GT/s, it is likely that higher performance levels will be proposed for DDR4 in the future. Other performance features planned for inclusion in the standard are a pseudo open drain interface on the DQ bus, a geardown mode for 2667 Mhz data rates and beyond, bank group architecture, internally generated VrefDQ and improved training modes.
The DDR4 architecture is an 8n prefetch with bank groups, including the use of two or four selectable bank groups. This will permit the DDR4 memory devices to have separate activation, read, write or refresh operations underway in each of the unique bank groups. This concept will improve overall memory efficiency and bandwidth, especially when small memory granularities are used.
Additional features in development include:
  • Three data width offerings: x4, x8 and x16
  • New JEDEC POD12 interface standard for DDR4 (1.2V)
  • Differential signaling for the clock and strobes
  • New termination scheme versus prior DDR versions: In DDR4, the DQ bus shifts termination to VDDQ, which should remain stable even if the VDD voltage is reduced over time.
  • Nominal and dynamic ODT: Improvements to the ODT protocol and a new Park Mode allow for a nominal termination and dynamic write termination without having to drive the ODT pin
  • Burst length of 8 and burst chop of 4
  • Data masking
  • DBI: to help reduce power consumption and improve data signal integrity, this feature informs the DRAM as to whether the true or inverted data should be stored
  • New CRC for data bus: Enabling error detection capability for data transfers – especially beneficial during write operations and in non-ECC memory applications.
  • New CA parity for command/address bus: Providing a low-cost method of verifying the integrity of command and address transfers over a link, for all operations.
  • DLL off mode supported
To facilitate comprehension and adoption of the DDR4 standard, JEDEC is planning to host a DDR4 Technical Workshop following the publication of the standard. More information and details will be announced coincident with publication.

Looking towards the future, JEDEC’s JC-42 Committee for Solid State Memories stands at the forefront of the ongoing effort to produce next generation memory device standards.


 Sequans Communications is introducing a terminal based improvement for edge cell performance. Embedded within their UE receiver chipset is an active interference canceler that they claim will improve edge throughput 3.5x and works with current Release 8, 9 and future LTE versions. This is a very big turning point in device design as more throughput will result in the win-win of better user experience  and better operator efficiency, which will be a sustainable cycle. Else, if the operators don’t improve efficacy then mobile wireless as we see it today will not work out. Here is the info…this is big!



Check out their throughput improvement chart.

A terminal-based interference mitigation solution for LTE

Sequans AIR™ is an innovative and powerful interference mitigation algorithm implemented on Sequans’ latest generation chips for LTE end user devices.  Sequans AIR has been fully tested and proven at both the system level and link level showing impressive results.  Sequans AIR has been shown to increase throughput up to 3.5 times for users at the cell edge and it has been shown to increase network capacity up to 2 times when all user terminals are equipped with Sequans AIR.

Key benefits

  • 3.5 x throughput increase at the cell edge
  • Up to 2 x network capacity increase
  • Significantly improved user experience in dense deployments

Interference is becoming an issue for operators as LTE networks proliferate and network traffic increases.  Network-based interference mitigation techniques are specified in future releases of the LTE standard, but these are not available today, and these are limited in how much interference they can remove.  Because LTE spectrum is limited, most LTE operators are deploying single frequency networks to maximize capacity; however, while single frequency networks increase spectral efficiency, they also increase the potential for interference.  Sequans AIR was developed in response to these trends and it offers a powerful interference solution that can be implemented on today’s LTE networks for significant benefits to end users and network operators.

Sequans AIR incorporates advanced interference rejection techniques.  When installed on an LTE user terminal, it works by forming a receive beam toward the useful signal and spatial nulls toward interfering signals.  Sequans AIR was co-developed with technology partner ArrayComm, a leader in multi-antenna signal processing and beam-forming.

Sequans AIR is designed to work in any LTE network (TDD or FDD), regardless of eNode B, carrier frequency, or channel bandwidth.  It works today on LTE Release 8 and 9 networks and will work on future Release 10 and 11 networks.  Sequans AIR is designed into Sequans’ latest LTE platforms: Andromeda for LTE handsets and tablets and Mont Blancfor hostless USB dongles, CPE and mobile hotspots.

Sequans AIR been tested in numerous interference scenarios, using the various transmission modes of LTE, and even in the most challenging situations, the Sequans AIR receiver showed a marked gain and in some cases rejected nearly twice as much interference as the default receiver.

For full details and performance see new white paper:  Mitigating Interference in LTE Networks with Sequans AIR.

Ah, Product Announcements. LTE marketplace growth. Have a nice day.




CalAmp to Supply Its Fusion-LTE Router to Vermont Utilities

Marketplace growth: A competitor for the Cradlepoint wireless router that supports LTE.

Mobile Operators can accelerate LTE Voice Strategy with ‘0 to VoLTE in 30 days’ offer 

It’s an IMS supporting VoLTE ready for deployment being actively marketed as such.

Spreadtrum Introduces SC9610 TD-LTE UE Chipset

These guys are aiming at $100 smartphones overall. This is the first TD-LTE chipset aiming for that market.


Links: Calamp, Mavenir, Spreadtrum

 According to EETimes, Maxim quietly gobbled up Genasic recently. That’s good to know because it sounded like Genasic was sampling an LTE UE (Device) 65nm radio front end with multi-band capability from 698MHz to 2.7GHz that will draw under 300 mW, enabling dongles and other devices. 

The GEN4100 operates from 680- to 2700-MHz with channel bandwidths programmable between 1.4- and 20-MHz. It has three receive ports between 1700 and 2700-MHz and two receive ports between 680 and 1500-MHz. There is one transmit port in the each of the upper and lower bands. The chip is packaged in a 9.8-mm by 8.6-mm thermal leadless array package with a ball-pitch of 0.4-mm. It can be provided as a discrete packaged device, as a bare die for inclusion in multi-chip modules or as hard-macro for integration in a system-on-chip.


And of course it caught my eye as there it is again, lower 700MHz component… Here’s to hoping Maxim maximizes the marketing for this device and the lower 700MHz devicescape continues to grow. Go forth and build something!

Links: EETimes,

 SkyCross has announced their device antenna technology and plans for world domination, which essentially shrinks the total space required for antennae in a device. They put it best…”The SkyCross VersiTune-LTE™ tunable antenna module leverages SkyCross patented ST-iMAT™ technology, enabling a single antenna structure to operate over up to 12 transmit and receive bands while providing optimized MIMO functionality crucial for 4G LTE speeds. This solution enables OEMs to deliver greater device performance, but shrinks the volume required for antennas inside advanced 4G LTE devices up to half that required for conventional antennas.” It’s a good technology. I wonder if it can be combined with the Taoglas efficiency? Good stuff… 


Links: SkyCross

Read Full Article →

  Altair Semiconductor, a manufacturer of LTE UE chipsets that we have highlighted before has put out a PR that they are teaming up with Ecrio (SIP client provider.) This probably means that Altair is working to launch the first truly VoLTE candidate chipsets (no need to build external middleware.) Altair makes the radio for the LTE UE (with Band 12/Lower 700MHz support) and the SIP client is the phone application with the UI/MMI and (SIP) protocol to make actual voice calls. Large OEMs like Samsung and LG etc may already have their IMS client in hand but this could enable a class of smaller players to launch LTE/VoLTE devices at a competitive price. This is a great development for the LTE market place. In fact, it goes hand in hand with the recent OnStar announcements that they are launching their APIs to the world…OnStar is reportedly launching a VoLTE device for in car voice calling on Verizon . 

Links:, Altair Semiconductor, Ecrio

Read Full Article →

 Right under our noses, Samsung’s SCH-R930, a Galaxy device similar to the Samsung Indulge on MetroPCS’s network is launching as was parroted in the blogosphere. What I realized about this was the interesting thing is FCC testing shows that it’s an all band player, with AWS, PCS, Cellular and yes,

Lower 700MHz covered for 5MHz and 10MHz channels. US Cellular is slated to launch this device, as they Tweeted last week, in April.

BTW, the Huawei Honor they are launching does not support this band so to me this points to US Cellular launching LTE on AWS. On the other hand there are a lot of lower 700MHz spectrum owners who have a hole burning in their pocket right about now…Good luck and keep the lines orderly!

Notice Samsung is very understated on this device. Hmmm…


Links: FCC, Engadget

Read Full Article →



Voice over LTE (VoLTE) is the next big thing. In fact, in 24 months, virtually all LTE enabled smart phones will support it. Curious?
Small Cells

Small Cells

Small Cells, previously known as 'femto' or 'pico' cells are possibly a savior to network operators. They offer capacity and coverage to the end user and are inexpensive for the network operator. Why aren't they everywhere?
Public Safety

Public Safety

LTE is and ideal technology for Public Safety use. See Why.