From the monthly archives: "July 2012"

Update: I was correct, they are leasing Lower 700MHz A/B spectrum in a few markets, BRS (2.4GHz) in 1 market, Lower 700MHz C/D in a few markets. So this is not being deployed in the Public Safety Upper 700MHz band. On the other hand, I was incorrect in inferring this was for public safety, this is for a new targeted market, what they call ‘critical’ infrastructure ex:gas/oil facilities. I suspect there will be lots of m2m like telemetry riding the waves too. This is a very interesting development! Go LTE ecosystem! 

Just keep that info up top in mind…

 Interesting announcement from Infrastructure Networks is intriguing in two dimensions for me. Firstly, the ecosystem for LTE is growing with this company focusing on an LTE for Public Safety deployment and secondly Infrastructure Networks deploys a large area of LTE for Public Safety in West Texas. This means the folks in West Texas got motivated and made things happen with respect to LTE whereas many others are just on the sidelines. Interesting. The Public Safety band in upper 700MHz is a great choice for rural areas based on the propagation characteristics, however from reading this: 

 Founded in March of 2011, Infrastructure Networks has been expanding network coverage under licensed spectrum holdings that cover more than 150,000 square miles of the Bakken Shale in North Dakota, the Eagle Ford Shale and Permian Basin in Texas and large parts of West Texas, the Texas panhandle, Eastern New Mexico and Kern County, California.

Sounds like they have some lower 700MHz, huh?

 Spectrum holdings of Infrastructure Networks:

 

 

 

 

 

 Their coverage area for this West Texas deployment:

Link: infrastructurenetworks.com

Full PR:

http://www.infrastructurenetworks.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/LTE-in-Permian-Basin_PR.pdf

PR Text:

Infrastructure Networks Rolls Out The First LTE Network For

Critical Infrastructure In The Heart of The Permian Basin

Houston, Texas, United States, July 25, 2012

Infrastructure Networks, a Houston, Texas-based provider of broadband wireless networks to Critical Infrastructure

Industries, has announced that it recently deployed 5 LTE (Long-Term Evolution) wireless broadband coverage sites in

the Permian Basin area of West Texas. These are the first LTE sites to be exclusively dedicated to the needs of Critical

Infrastructure entities, and their launch makes Infrastructure Networks one of only a handful of companies, including

Verizon, AT&T and Metro PCS, to operate an LTE network in North America.

Traditionally, retail and consumer based providers such as Verizon have not focused their coverage on less populated

rural areas. However, those remote areas, such as the Permian Basin and Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Bakken

Shale in North Dakota, are often home to a heavy concentration of Critical Infrastructure operations. This lack of adequate

coverage has created a window of opportunity which has motivated Infrastructure Networks’ initial efforts.

Phillip Liddell, Infrastructure Networks’ Vice President of Engineering, personally oversaw the implementation of the

network. “We are very pleased with the network test results to date.” stated Liddell. “The propagation characteristics of

the 700MHz spectrum are outstanding and support our ability to rapidly deploy a high quality LTE network in West Texas,

as well as other areas of Texas and North Dakota where we have 700MHz spectrum holdings.”

“We are extremely proud to be rolling out this network, which will be the foundation of a first of its kind service anywhere.”

added Infrastructure Networks CEO Stan Hughey. ”We formed this company specifically to service the needs of Critical

Infrastructure entities, and are excited to be at the very forefront of providing high bandwidth, low latency, secure solutions

that can be rapidly integrated into our customers existing communications infrastructure.”

Infrastructure Networks Executive Vice-President Kori Kalich-Ugalde is coordinating testing and demonstrations with

several company partners over the next month, and expects full scale provisioning of services to begin shortly thereafter.

“While we continue to demonstrate our new capabilities in the Permian Basin, we are also accelerating the expansion

and upgrade of our existing network coverage in the Texas panhandle.” she stated.

Founded in March of 2011, Infrastructure Networks has been expanding network coverage under licensed spectrum

holdings that cover more than 150,000 square miles of the Bakken Shale in North Dakota, the Eagle Ford Shale and

Permian Basin in Texas and large parts of West Texas, the Texas panhandle, Eastern New Mexico and Kern County,

California.

 

 

 Lemko managed to get my attention with a PR that teases about demonstrating Band 12 and Band 17 device interoperability. Quick refresher: this Band 17 in Lower 700MHz was created by AT&T to make something unique/non-operable with the existing Band 12 under the guise of interference protection but I have sort of talked through those points before. Anyway, good business for AT&T. So if Lemko has something that allows more compatibility for existing devices let’s see it. Unfortunately, there is no information in the PR nor their web site… Caught my eye though since this is such a big problem (like FCC required 35% geographic coverage by EOY 2012 if you purchased the lower 700MHz spectrum in the auctions) and not a lot of solutions. Would be cool to see some details from Lemko, I will reach out, but all we got is the PR for now. Enjoy…

 

Links: Lemko, sonlte.com, FCC.gov

Full PR;

Lemko Demonstrates 700 MHz Band Class 12 and 17 Interoperability

Schaumburg, Illinois

July 25, 2012

Lemko Corporation, the leader in the development of all IP distributed mobile wireless network architecture, announced today another 4G broadband innovation by demonstrating interoperability between 700 MHz LTE lower band classes. Lemko has successfully demonstrated mobile devices operating between 700 MHz band class12 and band class 17. This provides the critical interoperability to support roaming between the lower 700 MHz bands opening the door for full network build-outs in support of the imminent FCC 2012 build out deadline. Lemko LTE provides a DiMoWiNe (distributed mobile wireless network) solution that is designed to keep network operators profitable by offering the lowest total cost of ownership and superior end-user experience.

 

“This is a very significant innovation achievement for the LTE 700 MHz market since it shows that interoperability is possible for carriers planning LTE network build-outs in the lower A band channel blocks”, says David Dombrowski, Lemko Senior Director of Product Management. “Carriers can now move forward deploying their 700 MHz LTE networks knowing that the technology exists to support contiguous, homogeneous services regardless of band class.”

 

For details about DiMoWiNe please visit www.lemko.com or call 847-240-1990.
About Lemko Corporation

Lemko is the leading provider of DiMoWiNe (Distributed Mobile Wireless Network) solutions that change the way mobile operators maintain and develop voice, SMS and data businesses over 2G, 3G and 4G broadband networks. Lemko provides an entire cellular system powered by an all IP mobile infrastructure which includes radio access equipment as well as virtualized 2G, 3G and LTE core network functionality. The virtualized core functionality (including EPC, IMS, VoLTE, policy control, multimedia telephony and data off-load) sits at each RAN site with immediate connection to the cloud for delivery of voice, SMS, data and broadband functionality.

 

This approach lowers up-front capital expense and dramatically lowers on-going operational expenses. The company’s market leading solutions are deployed with Tier 3 as well as Tier 1 carriers, and government and military private network operators. Lemko is headquartered in Schaumburg, Illinois, USA.

 

More About Lemko Corp.

Update: Cisco came out with a post today (23JULY12) titled, “Evolving to LTE- Cisco’s Seamless Migration for CDMA Operators.” Have a look at that resource too. Their primary motivation is the recent purchase of Starent and so have CDMA and LTE gear to offer. From their page: (Seems a little like boilerplate from their HSPA but it’s cool they put it out!)

What You Will Learn

… This paper will outline how mobile operators can prepare their networks to support 4G broadband services that will improve the user experience and yield new revenue opportunities. Specifically, we will discuss how Cisco can assist operators in their move toward Long Term Evolution (LTE), a 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standard that represents a significant advancement in mobile technology.

With industry-leading mobile infrastructure solutions from Cisco, operators can:

  • Gradually transition from 2G/3G to 4G without a comprehensive network upgrade
  • Support 2G/3G and 4G functionality on a single platform
  • Meet LTE requirements for increased data rate capacity, reduced latency, and improved spectral efficiency
  • Provide transparent roaming between High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) network and LTE network
  • Take a phased approach to migrating the HSPA network to LTE by upgrading the core network to Evolved Packet Core (EPC) elements without an overlay Radio Access Network (RAN)

The downloadable page is here..

I hear a lot of confusion around 4G LTE/3G CDMA hand up and hand down, so I wanted to put some various notes I had to bear on helping to keep some of you guys straight on this topic. Now WiFi 802.x is technically an InterRAT type of hand over but I think it would be more clear if I outline that separately.

Here’s the lay of the land. Part A is the device piece and Part B is the network piece.

Overview

Focus here will be the common but difficult transition between LTE and CDMA (3GPP2.) A great number of end users via Verizon, Sprint, US Cellular, MetroPCS, Cspire and others share this pain so we will talk about it.

Next piece is how to fit all the evolutionary pieces together. I think Nokia came up with this handy chart…

 So here is the QCOM and Nokia chart summarized…in matrix form

Key point here is there are tradeoffs for the various configurations, such as use more battery to get more seamless coverage options, or notice the crazy amount of upgrades to the 3GPP2 network and device that is required for this ‘seamless’ experience? It’s not free by a long shot. It’s debatable in my mind as to the benefits of the eHRPD, sSRVCC and eCSFB dual radio service but there are operators moving forward on this plan. 

Here’s the typical UE architecture for a dual radio device BTW…

Now for the network piece. Here’s how it all goes together. Firstly we have the circuit switched domain….

The basics are Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) operates by enabling paging (1X MT calls), SMS, and registration of the UE by tunneling messages through the LTE domain via interfaces like the S102. Don’t forget the UE basically operates either as a LTE data device, while monitoring pages etc, or is in conversation state on the 1X network while monitoring the LTE domain. The standards groups revisited CSFB and came up with eCSFB to greatly reduce the transition time by getting the 1X traffic channel ready before the transition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Here’s how it goes together in the packet domain:

 

High Rate Packet Data handover essentially allows a seamless user experience when the device leaves the LTE coverage area, by enabling a session transfer to the 3G domain. The full transition could take up to 7 seconds! Enhanced HRPD (eHRPD) improves the transition time. So there is an optimized handover with a 5-7 second transition time and optimized handover with <300ms transition. To make this happen, most everything has to be upgraded but it’s all possible now.

 

 

 

 

So there are all of the parts to the story. It’s up to you to decide what you think is the best way. Personally, I think Verizon has been working hard to have LTE everywhere 3G is, therefore reducing or eliminating the need for all of these handover crutches once they deploy VoLTE. Else, there are lots of levers and knobs that can help save the day until the VoLTE roll out.

Presentation about eSRVCC and VoLTE

Download (PDF, 237KB)

 

 

 

Update: Forgot that Artiza Networks has a nice and clean version. Mine looks like a messy room in comparison. :) See bottom.

Just sharing this, it’s something I did before and forgot where I used it. I think I summarized some details, such as the millions of IMS pieces but broke out important functions such as HSGW vs PDSN and IWS etc for clarity. Enjoy…

The Network Mona Lisa

 

This version was created by Artiza Networks…

 So Aeroflex announces their TM500 product and I just want to slavishly point out how cool I think it is. Firstly it’s one of the few ways to test 4×4 MIMO capabilities of LTE. It supports 20MHz of bandwidth and up to 300Mbps DL and 75Mbps UL of throughput. They just announced a new feature, interference cancellation (eICIC)- woohoo! Seriously though, the TM500 is a really good way to validate the performance of lets say, integrating small cells and macrocells, or trying out 4×4 MIMO, or eNB scheduling optimizations etc… This is a great tool.

Infrastructure Test System TM500 HSPA Test Mobile Data Sheet (158 kB)

Links: Aeroflex.com

 

I just wanted to add a link to Qualcomm’s latest HD Voice Video. It has some good description of the voice improvements going into their chipsets. This is probably a strong reason not to jump off their platform but there are other ways to create these same improvements.

HD Voice is starting to get some attention with the recent launches by Orange and Sprint. As the hypeometer’s needle climbs, there will be a lot of attention focused in this area. I just wanted to put a few facts out there to keep it all straight. These operators have actually different technologies behind their HD Voice launches that eventually merge at VoLTE. I saw some silliness about the HD Voice launches in AnandTech and other places so let’s get started…

Technologies

First a brief history of the universe, starting with current voice technologies used with 3G networks.

Narrowband voice coding has been used in digital cellular systems since the beginning. Today’s smartphones typically employ EVRC for CDMA2000/3GPP2 based networks with a fraction of those employing the more advanced EVRC-B algorithm and AMR for UMTS/3GPP networks. EVRC and AMR are CODECs to transform voice into digitized speech using low amounts of bandwidth/throughput with a primary technique being limiting the input frequency ranges.

This chart shows the tradeoffs involved…

The measurement of voice is based on sampling a population of listeners that rate the quality of the spoken sentences after coding and decoding by an algorithm. Listeners are asked to (subjectively) rate the recordings they heard vs a reference standard. The reference standards are like (A) direct recording of voices or (B) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) at 64Kbps known in standards as G.711. Here is an example of the rating questions:

This is an experiment to determine the perceived quality of speech over the telephone. You will be listening to a number of recorded speech samples, spoken by several different talkers, and you will be rating how good you think they sound.
Use the single headphone on the ear you normally use for the telephone. On each trial a two- sentence sample will be played. After you have listened to the sample, determine the category from the list below which best describes the overall quality of the sample. Press the numeric key on your keyboard corresponding to your rating for how good or bad that particular passage sounded.
Select the category which best describes the sample you just heard for purposes of everyday speech communication.
The OVERALL SPEECH SAMPLE was:
5 – EXCELLENT
4 – GOOD
3 - FAIR
2 – POOR
1 – BAD

EVRC compresses each 20 milliseconds of (300-3200 Hz), 16-bit sampled speech input into output frames of one of three different sizes: full rate of 171 bits (8.55 kbit/s), half rate of 80 bits (4.0 kbit/s), eighth rate of 16 bits (0.8 kbit/s). EVRC has a peak bitrate of 8.5Kbps, a minimum of 0.8Kbps and ‘conversational’ planning rate of 6Kbps. 

3GPP2 EVRC Standards:  3GPP2 C.S0014-D

The AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) codec encodes narrowband (200-3400 Hz) signals for each 20 milliseconds of 8000 Hz at variable bit rates ranging from 4.75 to 12.2 kbps with toll quality speech starting at 7.4 kbps. AMR has a peak bitrate of 12.2Kbps, minimum of 4.75Kbps, ‘typical’ conversational rate of 4Kbps.

3GPP AMR Standard: TS 26.071

The goal of these narrowband VOCODERs is to reduce bandwidth during a conversation while delivering acceptable call quality. You will achieve near ideal speech quality but not full lifelike sound in perfect network conditions.

If you are reading this then likely you have first hand experience with the voice coders used in 3G networks. Moving forward …

Qualcomm (the main commercial influence for EVRC) has developed a more advanced (newer) line of CODECs they call 4GV which include EVRC-B and EVRC-WB (wide band.) Alternatively, there is a small consortium of companies that drive patents for AMR including Voice Age, Nokia, Ericsson, and France Telecom, and they have evolved their narrowband AMR with AMR-WB (you guessed it, wide band.) Lastly, there is SiLK, propelled by Skype. 

 

 

 

 

EVRC-WB is based on a split band coding paradigm in which two different coding models are used for the signal by independently sampling the low frequency (LF) (0-4 KHz) and the high frequency (HF) (3.5-7 KHz) bands.

MOS: 3.24( Street Noise, 15 dB SNR  )

EVRC-WB white paper by Qualcomm      EVRC-WB test results from 3Gpp2 testing

3GPP2 EVRC-WB Standard C.S0014-D_v1.0_EVRC

AMR-WB provides improved speech quality due to a wider speech bandwidth of 50–7000 Hz.

  • Configuration A (Config-WB-Code 0): 6.6, 8.85, and 12.65 kbit/s (Mandatory multi-rate configuration)
  • Configuration B (Config-WB-Code 2): 6.6, 8.85, 12.65, and 15.85 kbit/s
  • Configuration C (Config-WB-Code 4): 6.6, 8.85, 12.65, and 23.85 kbit/s
MOS: 3.14 ( Office Noise, 15 dB SNR  )
3GPP AMR-WB Standard TS 26.204
AMR-WB Whitepaper by VoiceAge

Comparison of AMR-WB and EVRC-WB…

SILK negotiates one of four modes during call setup: Narrowband (NB): 8 kHz sampling rate o Mediumband (MB): 8 or 12 kHz sampling rate. Wideband (WB): 8, 12 or 16 kHz sampling rate. Super Wideband (SWB): 8, 12, 16 or 24 kHz sampling rate. The purpose of these modes is to allow the decoder to limit the highest sampling rate used by the encoder.

MOS: 3.22 ( Office Noise, 15 dB SNR   )

Skype: Silk Data sheet and IETF Standard

Nokia paper comparing Silk and AMR-WB. (Note they are a patent holder for AMR-WB and the paper does slant that way.)

HD Voice is a broad term marketed by operators that seems to refer to the voice coding, more specifically the use of the wide band CODERs like AMR-WB and EVRC-WB. Therefore, under typical conditions, the additional bandwidth used will provide a more lifelike sound between the caller/called.

Operator Deployments

Orange in the U.K. began marketing HD Voice in September of 2010. They have a 3GPP based UMTS network thus they are using the AMR-WB vocoder. They have 7 handsets on their website as supporting the AMR-WB vocoder.

Sprint recently announced the launch of HD Voice with their launch of HTC EVO 4G LTE. Apparently they are using Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO) to support this feature. The basics of this are the 2 end points (Caller and Called) must have the EVRC-WB supported to be able to enjoy the additional sound quality. (It also means the network accepts Service Option 73 requests…)

VoLTE

3G phones have the VOCODERs built into the device and they only work with the connected 3G network infrastructure for voice calling. VoLTE uses an IP Multimedia System (IMS) architecture, that essentially is an application that runs over the LTE channel. The devices (UE) have an IMS client that uses Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) signaling to place calls. The IMS is functionally equivalent to their 3G counterparts but slightly more flexible as you can have various architectures such as distributed, localized, centralized etc… Some interesting flexibility exists in the IMS client, as it is possible for the IMS client to have variable VOCODERs and the IMS has a flexible architecture that will allow support for various VOCODERS. This probably means you can upgrade/downgrade to/from HD voice while mobile, and operators will likely support (free/incremental cost) wide band coding when on high rate connections such as WiFi, femotcells etc.. This makes life more interesting. 

On the flip side, the only official VOCODER supported with 3GPP for LTE networks right now is AMR. Some of you need to push SILK and EVRC-B into the 3GPP standards. Mobile calling could be so much more interesting than it is today.

OK, that was a huge wind up for a little paragraph. The point is HD Voice is available on a few operators over 3G today and likely available almost everywhere with VoLTE using mostly wide band VOCODERs that provide higher MOS scores but also use slightly more bandwidth than 3G voice calls. It will be interesting to see how OTT providers like Skype fit in as they can easily integrate into the IMS/3GPP/VoLTE architecture and may have more to offer in some cases.


You guys see this? This startup, indooratlas, is using embedded smart phone compass’ as magnetic anomaly detector. The spin-off company from the University of Oulu, Finland was founded in 2012.

The key issue they are addressing is that all of Google and Apple and other’s mapping technology is essentially satillite imagery meshed with GPS. This matched technology allows us to follow a path outdoors. Unfortunately we don’t have many images of indoor floor plans so we don’t have navigation to the exact office, cube, aisle bathroom etc… that we could have. This startup attempts to utilize the compass to aggregate user’s indoor paths into maps with the help of the compass. It’s an interesting approach. I still think without automation there is a large barrier to having ubiquitous indoor mapping but this is a big step in the right direction.

They are offering an API for developers to implement their technology into apps, an indoor mapping application named “Map Creator” and an indoor ‘content manager’ called “IndoorAtlas Floor Plans.”

Currently it looks like their platform of choice is Android.

 From their site… 

Toolbox

  • Add and manage floor plans with IndoorAtlas Floor Plans™.
  • Map buildings using IndoorAtlas Map Creator™.
  • Create applications using IndoorAtlas API.

White Papers

IndoorAtlas

Interesting deck of slides on small cells popped up this morning, titled ” The Chemistry of Small Cells.”  Have a look.

I like the call to action regarding a single vendor..

Good stuff.

Download (PDF, 714KB)

 So last year physorg.com had a story about saving 50% power consumption just by enhancing content strategies. I’ve been keeping my eyes on that one, therefore when I saw these, my triggers went off. I have about 4 technologies that are not earth shattering but each add up to dramatically slice power consumption for mobile devices. Here goes..

 BTW, this latest batch of technology is fundamental and is useful for all 4G LTE devices being used in most any way.

Firstly. there is a company called Quantance that has introduced a seriously kick butt power amplifier device for UEs. Their Q845 is a single chip 0.18μm component that enables Envelope Tracking (ET) for power amplifiers (PA) therefore, when combined with a relatively efficient PA component the effective power efficiency can approach 50% vs typical 35% seen in today’s designs. Here is their nifty graphic that shows the benefits: 

Quantance calls their ET technology qBoost. This is a significant improvement for LTE mobile radios. Don’t forget that this ET approach improves linearity of the PA. This will be realized as greater dBs TX power and improved Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) for greater throughputs in the uplink at the reduced power.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Second, let’s consider the improvement researchers Xinyu Zhang and Kang G. Shin of the University of Michigan outlined…That was a strategy called E-MiLi (Energy-Minimizing idle Listening.)  

A new “subconscious mode” for smartphones and other WiFi-enabled mobile devices could extend battery life by as much as 54 percent for users on the busiest networks. 

 This was targeted for WiFi and saves around 44% of total radio power. Their paper is here

Lastly there is Dockon. Dockon explains their technology best as:

DockOn’s CPL antenna technology is based on the concept of increasing efficiency and bandwidth by exciting magnetic and electric radiators together from a single feed location. This concept, referred to as “compound antenna theory”, has been perfected by DockOn for use in a wide variety of commercial applications and implemented on a variety of substrates including rigid/flex PCB, stamped metal and Laser Direct Structuring (LDS).

Their white paper can be found here.

So overall this increased antenna efficiency will increase the amount of RF power coming into and out of the antenna, therefore improving performance and battery life (less TX adjusting required since RX is better.)

 Beyond the constant improvements in processors that we are hearing about, both ARM designs and graphics processors, there is a new memory standard , double data rate type four synchronous dynamic random-access memory (DDR4). Note, the standards organization, JEDEC defines this standard. 

This memory is faster for greater performance and offers a theoretical savings of 20% overall. Samsung is now sampling these modules for servers etc and so the mobile devices seem to be more like 2013ish, but nonetheless an important technology to keep our eyes on. 

There is the simple list of 4 complementary technologies that can offer power savings in devices beyond the traditional process shrinks that are now expected in the processor domain. 

Good day..

Links: DockonJEDECQuantanceUniversity of Michigan, Wikipedia

 

 

JEDEC DDR4

With publication forecasted for mid-2012, JEDEC DDR4 will represent a significant advancement in performance with reduced power usage as compared to previous generation technologies. When published, the new standard will be available for free download at www.jedec.org.
DDR4 is being developed with a range of innovative features designed to enable high speed operation and broad applicability in a variety of applications including servers, laptops, desktop PCs and consumer products. Its speed, voltage and architecture are all being defined with the goal of simplifying migration and facilitating adoption of the standard.
A DDR4 voltage roadmap has been proposed that will facilitate customer migration by holding VDDQ constant at 1.2V and allowing for a future reduction in the VDD supply voltage. Understanding that enhancements in technology will occur over time, DDR4 will help protect against technology obsolescence by keeping the I/O voltage stable.
The per-pin data rates, over time, will be 1.6 giga transfers per second to an initial maximum objective of 3.2 giga transfers per second. With DDR3 exceeding its expected peak of 1.6 GT/s, it is likely that higher performance levels will be proposed for DDR4 in the future. Other performance features planned for inclusion in the standard are a pseudo open drain interface on the DQ bus, a geardown mode for 2667 Mhz data rates and beyond, bank group architecture, internally generated VrefDQ and improved training modes.
The DDR4 architecture is an 8n prefetch with bank groups, including the use of two or four selectable bank groups. This will permit the DDR4 memory devices to have separate activation, read, write or refresh operations underway in each of the unique bank groups. This concept will improve overall memory efficiency and bandwidth, especially when small memory granularities are used.
Additional features in development include:
  • Three data width offerings: x4, x8 and x16
  • New JEDEC POD12 interface standard for DDR4 (1.2V)
  • Differential signaling for the clock and strobes
  • New termination scheme versus prior DDR versions: In DDR4, the DQ bus shifts termination to VDDQ, which should remain stable even if the VDD voltage is reduced over time.
  • Nominal and dynamic ODT: Improvements to the ODT protocol and a new Park Mode allow for a nominal termination and dynamic write termination without having to drive the ODT pin
  • Burst length of 8 and burst chop of 4
  • Data masking
  • DBI: to help reduce power consumption and improve data signal integrity, this feature informs the DRAM as to whether the true or inverted data should be stored
  • New CRC for data bus: Enabling error detection capability for data transfers – especially beneficial during write operations and in non-ECC memory applications.
  • New CA parity for command/address bus: Providing a low-cost method of verifying the integrity of command and address transfers over a link, for all operations.
  • DLL off mode supported
To facilitate comprehension and adoption of the DDR4 standard, JEDEC is planning to host a DDR4 Technical Workshop following the publication of the standard. More information and details will be announced coincident with publication.

Looking towards the future, JEDEC’s JC-42 Committee for Solid State Memories stands at the forefront of the ongoing effort to produce next generation memory device standards.

 

VoLTE

VoLTE

Voice over LTE (VoLTE) is the next big thing. In fact, in 24 months, virtually all LTE enabled smart phones will support it. Curious?
Small Cells

Small Cells

Small Cells, previously known as 'femto' or 'pico' cells are possibly a savior to network operators. They offer capacity and coverage to the end user and are inexpensive for the network operator. Why aren't they everywhere?
Public Safety

Public Safety

LTE is and ideal technology for Public Safety use. See Why.